Friday, 26 June 2009

Hammarby model

public areas

Public- private areas building types

'Hammarby Sjöstad', Stockholm Sweden

'Hammarby Sjöstad' is a suburb of Stockholm located round Hammarby Lake. Its area is about 200 hectare which, according to the masterplan, it will comprise 11,000 apartments, for about 20,000 people, and an additional 200,000 sq m area of commercial space by the year 2018. The project, which was set in the early 1990s, was to expand the inner city towards to the lake having the water as a central focus for the development, while converting an old industrial and harbour area into a modern, sustainable neighbourhood. Hammarby Sjöstad has a strong emphasis on ecology and environmental sustainability. Topographically the district's borders are naturally defined by a hilly nature to the south and Hammarby Lake. The development tries to links the city of Stockholm with the suburb using same street dimensions, block lengths, building heights, density and mix of uses delivering a quality neighbourhood as inn the inner city.

Design principles

The city has a traditional Swedish structure which it has been combined with a new architectural style that responds to the specific waterside context. The design promotes sustainability and follows modern architectural principles, maximising light and views of the water and green spaces.
The proposed design is urban rather than suburban in order to link the inner city with the suburb and follows standard dimensions, such as the street width (18m), block sizes (70x100m), density, and land use.
The scale of development varies from four to five storeys along Sickla canal and 6 to 8 storeys along the inner area.
The spine of the new district is a 37.5m wide boulevard, which connects key transport nodes and public focal points, and creates a natural focus for activity and commerce. The ground floors of nearly all the buildings along this boulevard have been designed as flexible spaces, suitable for commerce, leisure or community use. Businesses have been located in the neighbourhood in order to supply the residences.
The residential districts adjacent to the main spine follow a grid structure with a semi-open block form, which allows for maximum light and views as well as providing open access to the courtyards of residential blocks. Most apartments have balconies, which provide overlooking onto the streets, waterfront walkways and open spaces.
A network of varied parks, green spaces and walkways runs through the district as well as pedestrian walks, quays and linear parks across the waterfront and giving access to the residents towards the boat moorings in the summer.
Community provisions which according to CABE are provided by the new suburb includes a modern glass church building, two state schools (6-16 years), one private school, one pre-school and nursery, one GP practice, a library, a sports centre, a ski-slope, a football pitch and a basketball court.
Public transport and the creation of new road and tram infrastructure make the area easily accessible.

Design process

The biggest challenges according to CABE was the decontamination of land, land reclamation and relocation of a large number of small low-grade industrial businesses such as car breakers and scrap yards, which is an ongoing and expensive process. The city after the long process finally acquired the majority of land in Hammarby Sjöstad The proposed masterplan, was submitted by, Jan Inghe-Hagström, at Stockholms City Planning Bureau. According to this masterplan the arae is divided into twelve sub-districts, which are being implemented as a series of development phases. The City selects three to four architects/masterplanners who were appointed to 'test' the proposed strategic.
During this process the City Planning Bureau encourage young architects and up-and-coming firms to take part on the development emphasised that they try to choose new architects for each sub-district.

The City planning Bureau, the design team, in close partnership with the chosen developers and architects for each plot, prepares a design code for each sub-district trying to establish a level of quality for the development that both the City and developer agree on.
Then, a consortium of developers and architects are invited to take forward the development of each plot or individual building, in order to ensure architectural diversity, within the proposed code.

The design code prepared by the team, according to CABE, sets out principles under a number of headings:
• District character,
• Traditional inner city built form with modern architecture which needs to be influenced and inspired by Hammarby Sjöstad's natural environment.
• A mix uses area having density, built forms, blocks which will be built around inner courtyard or play area, public spaces and relationship to the water are essential characteristics.
Thus, a five-point programme for architectural style, as it is described in CABE, is:
‘1. Traditional Stockholm inner-city character
2. Sjöstad local individuality (larger dwellings compared to inner city, greater variation between buildings in terms of height and form, greater emphasis on outdoor spaces, balconies and terraces, flat roofs, greater variation of materials)
3. The building forms and architectural style are to reflect hierarchy of open spaces, (for example taller, more prominent buildings along waterfront and esplanade)
4. Scale, order and variation - density guidelines are set out but an emphasis on maintaining quality and variation is also articulated.
5. Architectural trends - this section articulates how the modern architecture in Hammarby Sjostad should both draw inspiration from and differ from early "modernist" architecture. Similarities should include preserving the natural environment where possible and using it as inspiration rather than flattening for development, as well as light, views, access to green space, flat roofs, clean lines, light colours. But this should be combined with the density and hierarchy of spaces prevalent in the traditional inner city and the architecture should be place-specific and respond to its local environment. There is also an emphasis on mixed use rather than separation of uses.’

Building types - different building types are identified.

Façade materials, location of stairwells, window and balcony arrangement, roof type, are described in the design code as well as specific guidelines such as dimensions for the entrances, balconies, windows and roofing, including dimensions, proportions, colours and material for each block or key landmark building are also described under the design code.

Landscape Design is also described in the design codes. According to the code, courtyards and open spaces need to be clearly defined as public and private space. The proportion of green to hard open space (50%), the choice of planting, play area as well as materials for hard areas and street lighting and furniture are also described in the code. Standards for different types of streets are also set out, including esplanade, tram stop and local streets and cycle lanes.

Environmental programme

Sustainability is maximised across the development using green roofs, solar panels, and eco-friendly construction products. It has a fully integrated underground waste collection system; piping waste to the local district heating plant. The development has its own ecosystem, known as the Hammarby Model. The programme includes targets for sanitization, use of brownfield land, provision of public transport options to discourage car use, energy consumption, recycling of water and waste. This local eco system was structured to deliver wider social and environmental benefits. Its target was also to double the environmentally positive effective to the new build projects.
Hammarby recognises that environmental performance is not just about design; the development also needs to influence how people use places. Thus, in order to achieve the targets, the city educates and encourages residents to make full use of all of the environmental features of the area thought an environmental education centre which it is built in the centre of the district.


Hammarby Sjostad is a remarkably successful new urban neighbourhood, combining high quality public realm a building design with a diverse range of shops, services and facilities. The proposed masterplan tries to ensure a strong network of streets and public spaces, and a rounded and sustainable mix of uses. It also tries to ensure that a variety of different architects would be involved by dividing the whole area into sub-areas, each of which was the subject of a collaborative design process.

Hammarby Sjostad makes the most of its waterfront setting and location. All orientation within the neighbourhood is towards the water, and the apartment blocks are designed to maximise views of the water and sunlight. The aspiration of the team was to create a new 'inner city' district with high density development creating an urban district rather than a suburban having as a focus point an extremely high level of accessibility by public transport as well as accessibility for prams and wheelchairs which is excellent. The network of green spaces and parks is planned properly, providing a range of environmental and health benefits and making the area extremely attractive to residents. The natural landscape has been used in the design of public spaces, especially in the waterfront area.
Other design principles that are important according to the design code are:

1. safe streets - well lit and overlooked by ground floor uses, balconies or front doors onto the street.
2. pedestrian priority on main streets, with speed restrictions and frequent zebra crossings.
3. bypass road lowered below street level to minimise impact of noise and pollution.

As a conclusion, a residents’ survey (805 responses) undertaken in 2005 shows that :
1. residents are generally very satisfied with the environment in Hammarby Sjöstad. According to this survey:
2. two-thirds of all trips are made by public transport, bicycle or walking and a third of trips are car-borne.
3. the ferry is used as a link for a quarter of all trips.
4. a ferry link directly into the centre of Stockholm and an extension of the tram directly into the inner city were considered the highest priorities.
5. approximately 66% of households own a car, which is similar to the average for the inner city.
6. over half of all cars are parked in a private garage, the remainder on-street.
7. 8% of residents are members of the car pool, which is used mostly for shopping trips.
8. The library was the most frequently used service in the area, followed by hairdressers and dry cleaners. Priorities for additional service provision include another grocery store/supermarket, an off-license, a chemist and post-office services, a bank, a pub and a health centre.
Urban design compendium Hammarby-Sjöstad